ePrints.FRI - University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Computer and Information Science

Efficient bottom-up inductive logic programming

Miha Drole (2016) Efficient bottom-up inductive logic programming. PhD thesis.

Download (565Kb)


    Inductive logic programming (ILP) is a subfield of machine learning that uses logic programming as its input and output language. While the language of logic programming places ILP as one of the most expressive approaches to machine learning, it also causes the space of candidate solutions to be potentially infinite. ILP systems therefore need to be able to efficiently search through a possibly infinite space, often imposing limits on the hypothesis language in order to be able to handle large problems. We address two problems in the domain of bottom-up ILP systems: their inability to use negation and their efficiency. Bottom-up approaches to ILP rely on the concept of bottom clauses of examples. Bottom clause of a given example includes all known positive facts about it in the background knowledge, causing a bottom-up ILP system to be unable to reason with negation. One approach that enables such systems to use negation is the closed world specialisation (CWS). The method attempts to learn rules that hold for incorrectly covered negative examples, and then adds the negated rule to the hypothesis body. In this manner the use of negation is enabled using only positive facts. Existing uses of CWS use it to further specialise the output theory, which consists of clauses containing only positive literals that achieved the best scores. We show that such application of CWS is prone to lead to suboptimal solutions and provide two alternative uses of CWS inside of the hypothesis generation process. We implemented the two approaches as the ProGolemNot and ProGolemNRNot ILP systems, both based on the ProGolem system. We show that the two proposed systems both perform at least as well in terms of achieved accuracies as the base ProGolem system or its variant using CWS to further specialise the output hypothesis. Experimental comparison of the two systems also shows that they are equivalent in terms of the quality of their outputs, while Pro-GolemNRNot needs less time to derive the solution. ILP systems tend to spend most of the time computing the coverage of candidate hypotheses. In bottom-up systems the quantity of candidate hypotheses to be tested also depends on the number of literals in the bottom-clause of a randomly chosen example that forms the lower bound of the search space. In the thesis we define the concept of pairwise saturations. Pairwise saturations allow us to safely remove literals from a given bottom clause under the assumption that the final hypothesis also covers some other randomly chosen example. Safe removal of these literals does not require explicit coverage testing and can be performed faster. We implemented pairwise saturations along with their generalisation to n-wise saturations in the ProParGolem system. Experiments show that the speedups obtained from using pairwise saturations are highly dependent on the background knowledge structure. We observed speedups of up to factor 1.44 without loss of accuracy. We combine ProGolemNRNot with ProParGolem in ProParGolemNRNot – an ILP system that uses pairwise saturations and CWS. We use ProParGolemNRNot to learn simple geometric concepts using data obtained from simulated depth sensors. In the devised experiment the system can use previously learned concepts to describe new ones. Thee solutions found by the system are intuitively correct and achieve high accuracy on test data.

    Item Type: Thesis (PhD thesis)
    Keywords: inductive logic programming, closed-world specialisation, negation, saturation, bottom clause
    Number of Pages: 120
    Language of Content: Slovenian
    Mentor / Comentors:
    Name and SurnameIDFunction
    prof. dr. Igor Kononenko237Mentor
    Link to COBISS: http://www.cobiss.si/scripts/cobiss?command=search&base=51012&select=(ID=1536944835)
    Institution: University of Ljubljana
    Department: Faculty of Computer and Information Science
    Item ID: 3302
    Date Deposited: 24 Mar 2016 14:18
    Last Modified: 24 May 2016 14:28
    URI: http://eprints.fri.uni-lj.si/id/eprint/3302

    Actions (login required)

    View Item